Lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-related fatality. In the United States alone, more than 210,000 new lung cancer cases are diagnosed every year, with more than 170,000 deaths resulting from the disease each year.

Current diagnostic practices for common cancers rely heavily on imaging technologies such as CT scans for lung cancer, mammograms for breast cancer, and pelvic ultrasounds for ovarian cancer. Given the high probability of false-positive findings associated with CT screening, there is a substantial need for additional noninvasive modalities to discriminate between benign and malignant nodules. There are similar challenges in imaging-based screening for other malignancies and a subsequent need for complementary diagnostic tests.

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